Albay's index crimes committed against a person from 2009 to 2013 revealed that physical injury is consistently has the highest volume. The graph showed that from a decreasing trend in 2010-2012, it significatly soared high in 2013 to 1,838 cases or around 90.2 percent. Rape ranked second while homicide has the least volume of index crime against a person.
The graphical presentation of index crimes against property in Albay showed that for the last four years (2010-2013), theft has the highest record of incidence followed by robbery. In 2013, crime on theft reached up to 1,238 cases comprising more than two-thirds or about 69.8 percent (69.8%) of the total crimes against property. In 2009 however, theft was only secondary to robbery. Cases of Cattle Rustling exhibited the least volume of only 20 incidences reported for five years under review in the entire province of Albay.
The graph demostrates the total index crimes, total index crimes cleared and solved from 2009 to 2013. Of all the index crimes reported, there were a little more than two-fifths (40.14%) of it has been cleared and only more than 1 over 10 cases solved.
The graph shows a remarkable shift of crimes committed from the trend shown in the years 2009-2012. It was noted that during the said period, index crimes are higher in volume than non-index crimes. However in 2013, the situation was already in the opposite where non-index crimes numbered to 4,440 cases or 53.8 percent as compared to 3,808 index crimes reported or a proportion of 46.2 percent of the total crimes in Albay last year.
The graph shows the relation between the non-index crimes as categorized into violation of special laws and other non-index crimes. For the first two inclusive years: 2009 and 2010, cases of other non-index crimes were higher than violation of special laws. It however changed starting in 2011 up to 2013. It can be noted that in 2013, other non-index crimes were higher by 45.4 percentage points over the incidences of violation of special laws (72.7 percent vs 27.3 percent).
As to volume of non-index crimes and whether cleared or solved, a total of 8,797 non-index crimes were recorded in Albay from 2009-2013. It significantly rose to 4,440 cases in 2013, higher by 3,630 cases or 448 percent than the 2012 figure of only 810 incidents. Inversely however, non-index crime clearance rate went down to 57.6 percent in 2013 from 70.5 percent a year ago. Likewise, non-index crime solution rate showed a declining trend for the past three years (2011-2013) from 39 percent in 2011 down to 7.36 percent in 2013.
A total of 18,052 crimes were recorded by the Philippine National Police (PNP) for five years (2009-2013) in the province of Albay. More than half (8,477 cases or 50.5 percent) were recorded in the three cities of the orovince. On top is Legazpi City with 5,521 cases or 30.6 percent, followed by City of Ligao (1956 incidents or 10.8 percent) and ranking third with highest number of crimes is Tabaco City with 1,693 cases or 9.4 percent. The municipality of Jovellar posted the least number of crimes in five year time with only 105 cases or less than one percent of the total (0.58 percent). It has shown however, the highest crime clearance rate of 66.7 percent seconded by the municipality of Tiwi at 65.6 percent while the island municipality of Rapu-Rapu registered the lowest crime clearance rate of only 31.9 percent. As to crime solution, the province recorded an averagecrime solution efficiency rate of 17.11 percent with the municipality of Camalig registering the highest rate at 30.3 percent and Jovellar , the lowest at only 4.8 percent.
The graph illustrates the crime clearance efficiency and crime solution efficiency in the province of Albay by year: from 2009 to 2013. During the five years under review, crime clearance efficiency was dominant or of higher percentage than crime solution efficiency in 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2013. But in the year 2011, the graph shows the opposite side wherein crime solution efficiency was on higher percentage than the crime clearance efficiency .
Crime incidents in Albay classified according to specific type of crime from 2009-2013 shows that physical injury is still the number crime recorded in the province posting a total of 3,269 cases or 20.38 percent of the total seconded by theft with 3,269 incidents or 18.11 percent followed closely by violation of special laws with 3,206 records or 17.76 percent. On the other hand, cattle Rustling registered a negligible number with only 20 cases or 0.11 percent in five years. It is to be noted that almost one in three cases of crime in Albay can be categorized under other non-index crime which resulted to a total volume of 5,591 cases or 30.97 percent of the total crimes recorded in the province in five years.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
For purposes of uniformity, the following terms shall be operationally defined and used:
A. CRIMES – include felonies which are violations of the Revised Penal Code and offenses which are violations of special laws.
B. CRIME VOLUME – the number of crime incidents committed in a given area over a period of time which include the index and the non-index crimes.
CV = Index Crimes + Non – Index Crimes
C. POPULATION – the number of inhabitants in a given area. The figure to be used is the medium assumption as per the records from the National Statistics Office (NSO).
D. CRIME RATE – is the number of crime incidents in a given period of time for every 100,000 inhabitants of the area.
E. INDEX CRIMES – are crimes which are serious in nature and which occur with sufficient frequency and regularity such that they can serve as an index to the crime situation. We consider only the crimes of murder, homicide, physical injury (serious and less serious), car napping, cattle rustling, robbery, theft, and rape as index crimes.
F. SOLVED CASES – NAPOLCOM M.C. No. 94-017 provides that:
1. A case shall be considered solved when the following elements concur; the offender has been identified; there is sufficient evidence to charge him; the offender has been taken into custody; and the offender has been charged before the prosecutor’s office or court of appropriate jurisdiction.
2. A case shall be considered solved when some elements beyond police control prevent the arrest of the offender, such as when the victim refuses to prosecute after the offender is identified or the offender dies or absconds.
3. The arrest of one offender can solved several crimes or several offenders may be arrested in the process of solving one crime.
G. CRIME SOLUTION EFFICIENCY – is the percentage of solved cases out of the total number of crime incidents handled by law enforcement agencies for a given period of time.
H. CLEARED CASE – A case shall be considered cleared when at least one of the offenders has been identified; there is sufficient evidence to charge him; and, he has been charged before the prosecutor’s office or any other court of appropriate jurisdiction. Included in this category are solved cases.
I. CRIME CLEARANCE EFFICIENCY – is the percentage of cleared cases out of the total number of crime incidents handled by the law enforcement agencies for a given period of time.
CC = Cleared Cases
CV = Crime Volume
CCE = Case Clearance Efficiency
Source: ALBAY PPO